The expression Islamic Scienceis extensively used by Arab authors to cover up the stunning fact,that most of those who excelled in the sciences under Arabian 'Islam' were actually from among the conquered civilizations:Persians, Byzantine Christians, Jews, Zoroasterians, Hindus.
The fact is, that it shoud be called the Mawali Civilzation since it was mostly from among the converts to 'Islam'(mawali), that these sciences evolved.
It is very important to point out, that these scientists were mostly 'secular' men who were able to excel, despite the oppressive and uninquiring nature of traditional Muhammadan Islam.
Another important, but actually very basic reason for the lack of excellence in the above among the Arabs, is the fact, that the Arabs had no civilization, no literature, no knowledge and no sciences upon which and from which they could participate in or contribute to.
Moreover, in the tradition of Muhammadan Islam, all knowledge[Ilm]not founded on revelation and tradition(religious knowledge), is deemed not only irrelevant, but is considered to be the first step on the path to disbelief.
Ibn Khaldunreminds us, that Arabs did not play a great part in the original development of'Islamic Science':
" It is strange, that most of the learned among the Muslims who have excelled in the religious or intellectual sciences, are not Arabs, even those with with rare exceptions; and even those savants who claimed Arabian descent, spoke a foreign language, grew up in a foreign land and studied under foreign masters"
Islamists and Muhammadan Muslims, quote the following verse in the Quran to perpetuate the myth that Islam encourages science and knowledge.
13: 43 The Unbelievers say: "No apostle art thou." Say: "Enough for a witness between me and you is Allah and such as have knowledge[Ilm] of the Book."
22: 8Yet there is among men such a one as disputes about Allah without knowledge[Ilm] without guidance and without a Book of Enlightenment
39:" 9 Is one who worships devoutly during the hours of the night prostrating himself or standing (in adoration) who takes heed of the Hereafter and who places his hope in the Mercy of his Lord (like one who does not)? Say: "Are those equal those who know [ya'alamoona] and those who do not know [la ya'alamoona]? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition."
The knowledge [ilm] that is alluded to in the verse above, as well as in those in numerous references in the Ahadith, refer invariably, to religious knowledge,and not science, since the latter contradicts the traditions, especially those pertaining to the creation and other natural items mentioned in the Quran.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.75Narrated byIbn Abbas
Once the Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an)."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.79Narrated byAbu Musa
The Prophet said, "The example of guidance and knowledge[Ilm] with which Allah has sent me is like abundant rain falling on the earth, some of which was fertile soil that absorbed rain water and brought forth vegetation and grass in abundance. (And) another portion of it was hard and held the rain water and Allah benefited the people with it and they utilized it for drinking, making their animals drink from it and for irrigation of the land for cultivation. (And) a portion of it was barren which could neither hold the water nor bring forth vegetation (then that land gave no benefits). The first is the example of the person who comprehends Allah's religion and gets benefit (from the knowledge) which Allah has revealed through me (the Prophets and learns and then teaches others. The last example is that of a person who does not care for it and does not take Allah's guidance revealed through me (He is like that barren land.)"
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.80Narrated byAnas
Allah's Apostle said, "From among the portents of the Hour are (the following):
1.Religious knowledge will be taken away (by the death of religious learned men).
2.(Religious) ignorance will prevail.
3.Drinking of alcoholic drinks (will be very common).
4.There will be prevalence of open illegal sexual intercourse.
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.98Narrated byAbu Huraira
I said: "O Allah's Apostle! Who will be the luckiest person, who will gain your intercession on the Day of Resurrection?" Allah's Apostle said: O Abu Huraira! "I have thought that none will ask me about it before you as I know your longing for the (learning of) Hadiths. The luckiest person who will have my intercession on the Day of Resurrection will be the one who said sincerely from the bottom of his heart "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah."
And 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz wrote to Abu Bakr bin Hazm, "Look for the knowledge of Hadith and get it written, as I am afraid that religious knowledge[Ilm] will vanish and the religious learned men will pass away (die). Do not accept anything save the Hadiths of the Prophet. Circulate knowledge[Ilm] and teach the ignorant, for knowledge does not vanish except when it is kept secretly (to oneself)."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 1.100Narrated byAbdullah bin Amr bin Al As
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "Allah does not take away theknowledge[Ilm], by taking it away from (the hearts of) the people, but takes it away by the death of the religious learned men till when none of the (religious learned men) remains, people will take as their leaders ignorant persons who when consulted will give their verdict without knowledge[Ilm]. So they will go astray and will lead the people astray."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.283Narrated byAbu Juhaifa
I asked Ali, "Do you have the knowledge[Ilm] of any Divine Inspiration besides what is in Allah's Book?" 'Ali replied, "No, by Him Who splits the grain of corn and creates the soul. I don't think we have such knowledge[Ilm], but we have the ability of understanding which Allah may endow a person with, so that he may understand the Qur'an, and we have what is written in this paper as well." I asked, "What is written in this paper?" He replied, "(The regulations of) blood-money, the freeing of captives, and the judgment that no Muslim should be killed for killing an infidel."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 4.784Narrated byJabir bin Abdullah
The Prophet used to stand by a tree or a date-palm on Friday. Then an Ansari woman or man said. "O Allah's Apostle! Shall we make a pulpit for you?" He replied, "If you wish." So they made a pulpit for him and when it was Friday, he proceeded towards the pulpit (for delivering the sermon). The date-palm cried like a child! The Prophet descended (the pulpit) and embraced it while it continued moaning like a child being quietened. The Prophet said, "It was crying for (missing) what it used to hear of religious knowledge given near to it."
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 6.494Narrated byIbn Abbas
to make me sit with the elderly men who had fought in the Battle of Badr. Some of them felt it (did not like that) and said to 'Umar "Why do you bring in this boy to sit with us while we have sons like him?" 'Umar replied, "Because of what you know of his position (i.e. his religious knowledge.)" One day 'Umar called me and made me sit in the gathering of those people; and I think that he called me just to show them (my religious knowledge). 'Umar then asked them (in my presence). "What do you say about the interpretation of the Statement of Allah:.....
Sahih Al-Bukhari HadithHadith 9.410Narrated byAbdullah bin Amr
I heard the Prophet saying, "Allah will not deprive you of knowledge[Ilm] after he has given it to you, but it will be taken away through the death of the religious learned men with their knowledge[Ilm]. Then there will remain ignorant people who, when consulted, will give verdicts according to their opinions whereby they will mislead others and go astray."
Al-Muwatta Hadith Hadith 18.55
Fasting The "Day of Doubt"
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard the people of knowledge[Ilm] telling people not to fast on the day in Shaban when there was doubt (about whether it was Shaban or Ramadan), if they intended by it the fast of Ramadan . They considered that whoever fasted on that day without having seen (the new moon) had to make up that day if it later became clear that it was part of Ramadan. They did not see any harm in voluntary fasting on that day.
Malik said, "This is what we do, and what I have seen the people of knowledge in our city doing."
Al-Muwatta Hadith Hadith 18.60
The Fast in General
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the people of knowledge[Ilm] did not disapprove of people fasting using tooth-sticks at any hour of the day in Ramadan, whether at the beginning or the end, nor had he heard any of the people of knowledge[Ilm] disapproving of or forbidding the practice.
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, about fasting for six days after breaking the fast at the end of Ramadan, that he had never seen any of the people of knowledge[Ilm] and fiqh fasting them. He said, "I have not heard that any of our predecessors used to do that, and the people of knowledge[Ilm] disapprove of it and they are afraid that it might become a bida and that common and ignorant people might join to Ramadan what does not belong to it, if they were to think that the people of knowledge[Ilm] had given permission for that to be done and were seen doing it.
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "I have never heard any of the people of knowledge[Ilm] and fiqh and those whom people take as an example forbidding fasting on the day of jumua. Fasting on it is good, and I have seen one of the people of knowledge[Ilm] fasting it, and it seemed to me that he was keen to do so."
Al-Muwatta Hadith Hadith 20.39
Doing Hajj on its Own
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard the people of knowledge[Ilm] say, "If someone goes into ihram to do hajj on its own, he cannot then go into ihram to do umra.''
Malik said, "This is what I have found the people of knowledge[Ilm] in our city doing."
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 218Narrated byAnas ibn Malik
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: The seeking of knowledge[Ilm] is obligatory for every Muslim; and the imparting of knowledge[Ilm] to the non-deserving is like putting necklaces of jewels, pearls and gold around the necks of swine.
Transmitted by Ibn Majah and Bayhaqi in Shu'ab al-Iman up to the word "Muslim" saying: This is a hadith the text of which is quite well known but the chain of transmission is weak.
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 261Narrated byAbdullah ibn Mas'ud
There are two avaricious people who are never contented: the man of learning and the man of the world, but the two are not equal. The man of knowledge[Ilm] increases in submission to Allah, and as for the man of the world, he becomes headstrong and defiant. Abdullah then recited: `Nay man is surely rebellious when he sees himself free from want.' (46:6) Concerning the other he recited the verse: `Surely those of His servants who are possessed of knowledge[Ilm] , fear Allah.' (35:28)
Transmitted by Darimi.
*** Excellent representation that knowledge[Ilm]is to do ONLY with RELIGION in the contexts of the quran and hadiths, and not the sciences and arts***
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 277Narrated byZiyad ibn Labid
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) spoke of something and said: It will happen when knowledge will be no more. I said: Allah's Messenger, how will knowledge vanish despite the fact that we will be reciting the Qur'an and teaching its recitation to our children and our children will teach its recitation to their children up to the Day of Resurrection? Thereupon he said: Ziyad, may your mother weep over you. I was of the opinion that you were one of those who have greatest understanding of religion in Medina. Do these Jews and Christians not recite the Torah and the Bible but not act according to what is contained in them?
Transmitted by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Tirmidhi.
Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 279Narrated byAbdullah ibn Mas'ud
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said to me: Acquire the knowledge[Ilm] and impart it to the people. Acquire the knowledge[Ilm] of Fara'id (laws of inheritance) and teach it to the people, learn the Qur'an and teach it to the people; for I am a person who has to depart this world and the knowledge[Ilm] will be taken away and turmoil will appear to such an extent that two people will not agree in regard to a case of inheritance distribution and find none who would decide between them.
Transmitted by Darimi and Daraqutni.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 2744Narrated byHabib ibn Maslamah al-Fihri
Makhul said: I was the slave of a woman of Banu Hudhayl; afterwards she emancipated me. I did not leave Egypt until I had acquired all the knowledge[Ilm] that seemed to me to exist there. I then came to al-Hijaz and I did not leave it until I had acquired all the knowledge[Ilm] that seemed to be available. Then I came to al-Iraq, and I did not leave it until I had acquired all the knowledge[Ilm] that seemed to be available. I then came to Syria, and besieged it. I asked everyone about giving rewards from the booty. I did not find anyone who could tell me anything about it. I then met an old man called Ziyad ibn Jariyah at-Tamimi. I asked him: Have you heard anything about giving rewards from the booty? He replied: Yes. I heard Maslamah al-Fihri say: I was present with the Prophet (peace be upon him). He gave a quarter of the spoils on the outward journey and a third on the return journey.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 3634Narrated byAbudDarda'
Kathir ibn Qays said: I was sitting with AbudDarda' in the mosque of Damascus. A man came to him and said: AbudDarda, I have come to you from the town of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) for a tradition that I have heard you relate from the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). I have come for no other purpose. He said: I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge[Ilm], Allah will cause him to travel on one of the roads of Paradise. The angels will lower their wings in their great pleasure with one who seeks knowledge[Ilm], the inhabitants of the heavens and the Earth and the fish in the deep waters will ask forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man over the devout is like that of the moon, on the night when it is full, over the rest of the stars. The learned are the heirs of the Prophets, and the Prophets leave neither dinar nor dirham, leaving only knowledge[Ilm], and he who takes it takes an abundant portion.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 3652Narrated byZayd ibn Thabit
I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: May Allah brighten a man who hears a tradition from us, gets it by heart and passes it on to others. Many a bearer of knowledge conveys it to one who is more versed than he is; and many a bearer of knowledge is not versed in it.
Sahih Muslim HadithHadith 4688Narrated byAbuHurayrah
It has been narrated on the authority of Sulayman ibn Yasar who said: People dispersed from around AbuHurayrah, and Natil, who was from the Syrians, said to him: O Shaykh, relate (to us) a tradition you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He said: Yes. I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say: The first man (whose case) will be decided on the Day of Judgment, will be a man who died as a martyr. He shall be brought (before the Judgment Seat). Allah will make him recount His blessings (i.e. the blessings which He had bestowed upon him) and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his life). (Then) will Allah say: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I fought for Thee until I died as a martyr. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You fought so that you might be called a "brave warrior". And you were called so. (Then) orders will be passed against him and he will be dragged with his face downward and cast into Hell. Then there will be brought forward a man who acquired knowledge[Ilm] and imparted it (to others) and recited the Qur'an. He will be brought, Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Then will Allah ask: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I acquired knowledge[Ilm] and disseminated it and recited the Qur'an, seeking Thy pleasure. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You acquired knowledge[Ilm] so that you might be called "a scholar", and you recited the Qur'an so that it might be said: "He is a Qari" and such has been said. Then orders will be passed against him and he shall be dragged with his face downward and cast into the Fire. Then will be brought a man whom Allah had made abundantly rich and had granted every kind of wealth. He will be brought, Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them and (admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Allah will (then) ask: What have you done (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I spent money in every cause in which Thou wished that it should be spent. Allah will say: You are lying. You did (so) that it might be said about (you): "He is a generous fellow", and so it was said. Then will Allah pass orders and he will be dragged with his face downward and thrown into Hell.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 4994Narrated byBuraydah ibn al-Hasib
I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: In eloquence there is magic, in knowledge[Ilm], ignorance, in poetry wisdom, and in speech heaviness. Sa'sa'ah ibn Suhan said: The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) spoke the truth. His statement "In eloquence there is magic" means: (For example), there is a right due from a man who is more eloquent in reasoning than the man who is demanding his right. He (the defendant) charms the people by his speech and takes away his right. His statement "In knowledge[Ilm], there is ignorance" means: A scholar brings to his knowledge[Ilm],what he does not know, and thus he becomes ignorant of that. His statement "In poetry there is wisdom" means: These are the sermons and examples by which people receive admonition. His statement "In speech there is heaviness" means: That you present your speech and your talk to a man who is not capable of understanding it, and who does not want it.
Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 5043Narrated byAisha, Ummul Mu'minin
When the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) awake at night, he said: There is no god but thou, glory be to Thee, O Allah, I ask Thy pardon for my sin and I ask Thee for Thy mercy. O Allah! advance me in knowledge: do not cause my heart to deviate (from guidance) after Thou hast guided me, and grant me mercy from thyself; verily thou art the grantor.
Hadith Qudsi Hadith Qudsi 6
The first of people against whom judgment will be pronounced on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who died a martyr. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His favours and he will recognize them. [ The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I fought for you until I died a martyr. He will say: You have lied - you did but fight that it might be said [of you]: He is courageous. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man who has studied [religious]knowledge[Ilm] and has taught it and who used to recite the Quran. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I studied [religious] knowledge[Ilm] and I taught it and I recited the Quran for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but study [religious]knowledge[Ilm] that it might be said [of you]: He is learned. And you recited the Quran that it might be said [of you]: He is a reciter. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man whom Allah had made rich and to whom He had given all kinds of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I left no path [untrodden] in which You like money to be spent without spending in it for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but do so that it might be said [of you]: He is open-handed. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire.
*** Muhammadan orthodoxy does not encourage unrestricted intellectual inquiry, since it is deemed dangerous to the faith of the believer.
Whenever and where ever Fundamentalist Muhammadan Islam had power, Freedom was trampled on, Joy was eliminated, Science & Arts were extinguished, and the darkness of bigotry and fear covered the land.
The BEST example of the truest form of Muhammadan Islamic governance was the rule of the TALIBAN in Afghanistan.
The Greatest ENEMY of Muhammadan Islam is KNOWLEDGE.
The Best FRIENDSandALLIESof Muhammadan Islam are
IGNORANCE and STUPIDITY.
That is why the best KNOWLEDGE that is accepted by the Islamic tradition, is the one that is most helpful for the practice of RELIGION, only***